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Reproductive Disorders



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Reproductive disorders
Reproductive disorders sometimes arise when the hormones of an individual are in flux. This is the difficulty or abnormality experienced by an individual or couples during Reproductive processes. Certain forms of reproductive disorders are often experienced normally after birth and during breast feeding or during menopause. Severe illness such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some level of shock can contribute to some form of disorder in the reproductive system of an individual.

Factors

There are many factors which can contribute to reproductive disorders, some of these factors could either be physical, emotional, medical or even the onset of natural cause of events like aging could play a role. Some of these factors are:-

Physical Factors:

There are many physical and/ or medical conditions which can cause reproductive disorder. Some of such conditions include diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, kidney failure, neurological disorder, liver failure, drug abuse, addiction, etc. certain drugs like antidepressants can also decrease the reproductive functions of an individual.

Hormonal Factors:

Hormonal imbalance or flux can cause or contribute to reproductive disorder. When the hormones of an individual which are primarily to regulate the reproductive system malfunctions, the entire processes in the system  of that individual malfunctions. Lower levels of oestrogens after menopause may lead to changes in the genital tissues and coital responsiveness.

Therefore, a decrease in oestrogen levels leads to a decreased blood flow to the pelvic region which can result in the delay of  coital response. Hence, this leads to a decrease or more accurately a disorder of one’s Reproductive system.

Psychological Factors:

The state of mind of an individual is very essential when it comes to reproductive behaviour, because concerns such as performance, guilt, marital or relationship problems have a profound effect on reproduction. Conditions such as stress, anxiety, depression also can contribute to reproductive disorder. One most prominent cause of reproductive disorder is religious and cultural issues.

Chronic Disease:
Diseases such as, enlargement of prostate gland, medical problems with blood supply, nerves damage, etc. can cause disorder of the reproductive system. Diabetic neuropathy, multiple sclerosis, tumors, and tertiary syphilis can have a negative impact on reproductive functions.

Failure of the body’s organs and systems such as heart, kidney, liver, etc. can cause severe disorder of the reproductive system. Outside of medical conditions that affect the reproductive system directly, some people, Rather than focusing on their reproductive capabilities, psychologically, concerns of their ill health will take a center stage thereby interfering with their reproductive capabilities.

Menopause:

The term menopause literally means “pause in the menses”. This refers to the cessation of ovarian activity and menstruation that occur between the ages of 45 to 50. During the post menopausal years, which actually account for about a third of a woman’s life span, the ovaries are depleted of follicles and stop secreting estradiol (E2), and inhibin

Specifically, the fall in the levels of E2 is due to changes in the ovaries. The withdrawal of E2 secretions from the ovaries is most responsible for the symptoms of menopause, which includes urinogenital atrophy, atrophy of the urethra, atrophy of the female reproductive system, and atrophy of the female reproductive glands. All these lead to loss of female reproductive functions.

Aging:

There have been a lot of controversies concerning aging and coital functions. So it is unclear if aging have direct effect on coition.  However, studies have demonstrated that aging has a profound effect on reproductive functions mostly in women. This is more common is the areas of desire, interest, etc.

Basically, in both men and women, confidence in reproductive functions, capabilities and well being can and should improve with age. But the psychological changes and social impact of aging on the elders seems to drain that confidence from them. This affects the reproductive drive of both men and women. As an individual advances in age, the levels of serum reproductive hormones such as Estradiol, testosterone, dyhydrotestoteron, etc. drop steeply. Hence, this marks the beginning of age related reproductive disorder.

Treatment

Most of the disorders of the reproductive system can be treated or corrected easily. Treatment depends on the condition or type of disorder and more importantly the predisposing condition or factor. Treatment strategies basically include:-

Medications:

If the disorder is medical, medications are prescribed to correct such conditions.  Such medications  must be prescribed by a medical practitioner. Disorders caused by hormonal deficiency can be corrected by hormone therapy or shots.

Psychotherapy:

This is having a therapy session with a psychologist or a well trained professional counselor. This session often helps an individual or couples to address all trauma like rape, abuse from the past, helping couples deal with feelings of anxiety towards reproductive behaviour, fear or guilt and low self esteem as a result of body shape or size. All these and many more have some level impact on reproductive functions.

Education:

Having the knowledge of/ about coition and reproductive behaviour and its corresponding responses may help an individual or couples to deal effectively with anxieties about intercourse. Communication between partners increases understanding within them about their coital needs and concerns, which ultimately provides room for partner to adjust in terms of reproductive behaviour as a result of the door opened by communication. Hence education also is an effective way of dealing with disorders of the reproductive system.

Healthy diets:

The importance of diet cannot be over emphasized when it comes to reproductive health. It is an integral part of reproductive behaviour, hence its necessity. If individuals, partners or couples need to be healthy and to have a healthy reproductive life, then the importance of healthy diet (nutrition) should be the watch word. People need to be healthy and physically fit to achieve/ or have a functional reproductive system.

The lack of proper diet or nutrient give rise to malnutrition, this eventually causes muscle wasting as a result of muscular dystrophy which is expressed in general body weakness which greatly contributes poor reproductive health.



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